Saturday, November 19, 2005


The English setter has served as a hunter for more than 400 years and has been bred in its present form since about 1825. Characteristically

Sunday, October 16, 2005

Great Mogul Diamond

The largest diamond ever found in India. It was discovered as a 787-carat rough stone in the Golconda mines in 1650 and subsequently was cut by the Venetian lapidary Hortentio Borgis. The French jewel trader Jean-Baptiste Tavernier described it in 1665 as a high-crowned rose-cut stone with a flaw at the bottom and a small speck within. Its present location is unknown, and some believe

Saturday, July 23, 2005

Shamanism, The universe

The classic worldview of shamanism is found among the peoples of northern Asia. In their view the universe is full of heavenly bodies peopled by spiritual beings. Their own world is disk-shaped—saucerlike—with an opening in the middle leading into the Netherworld; the Upper World stands over the Central World, or Earth, this world having a manyfold vault. The Earth,

Wednesday, July 06, 2005

Tso Tsung-t'ang

Pinyin  Zuo Zongtang  Chinese administrator and military leader, one of the scholar-officials who worked to suppress the great rebellions that threatened the imperial government during the second half of the 19th century. Tso's efforts helped revive the declining Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12) and reestablished the Chinese position in

Thursday, June 30, 2005

Earthfill Dam

Also called  Earth Dam, or Embankment Dam,   dam built up by compacting successive layers of earth, using the most impervious materials to form a core and placing more permeable substances on the upstream and downstream sides. A facing of crushed stone prevents erosion by wind or rain, and an ample spillway, usually of concrete, protects against catastrophic washout should the water overtop the dam.

Thursday, June 23, 2005

Forel, Auguste-henri

Forel studied medicine at the University of Zürich from 1866 to 1871 and then did work in neuroanatomy at the University of Vienna, where he received his medical degree in 1872. In 1879 he was appointed director of the Burghölzli Asylum

Tuesday, June 21, 2005


According to all the ancient sources, Gyges came to the throne after slaying King Candaules and marrying his queen, but there are several versions of the event itself. Herodotus wrote that Candaules, who was inordinately proud of